Clinical outcome and cost comparison of percutaneous embolization and surgical ligation of varicocele. – Cleveland Clinic.
“ Percutaneous embolization and surgical ligation of varicocele are equally effective in improving male infertility and cost about the same. Embolization offers the potential advantage of shorter recovery to full activity as compared to surgical ligation.”
Percutaneous treatment of varicocele with microcoil embolization: comparison of treatment outcome with laparoscopic varicocelectomy
“ Both laparoscopic varicocelectomy and coil embolization are effective treatment modalities for varicoceles. With lower treatment complication rates in the interventional treatment group, coil embolization of the testicular vein offers treatment advantage compared with laparoscopic repair in patients with varicoceles.”